LOGO Primitives
Command 
Short Form 
Example 
Description 
Chapter 9


MAKE 
MAKE 
MAKE “X 50 
Defines a global variable and assigns an initial value. 
LOCAL 
LOCAL 
LOCAL “X 
Changes a global variable to a variable that is local to the procedure where this command occurs. 




Command 
Short Form 
Example 
Description 
Chapter 11


PRINTOUT NAMES 
PO NAMES 
PO NAMES 
Prints out all of the global variables. 
ERN 
ERN 
ERN “X 
ERN removes the variable(s) specified by its input from the Logo workspace 
ERASE NAMES 
ERASE NAMES 
ERASE NAMES 
ERASE NAMES removes all userdefined variables from the workspace. 




Command 
Short Form 
Example 
Description 
Chapter 12


REMAINDER 

REMAINDER 5 2 Result: 1 
Reports an integer remainder of the first number divided by the second number. 
INT 

INT 8.9 Result: 8 
INT reports the integer portion of its input by removing the decimal portion, if any. No rounding occurs. 
ROUND 

ROUND 1.5 Result: 2 
ROUND reports the input number rounded to the nearest integer. 
SQRT 

SQRT 2 Result: 1.41 
Outputs the square root of its input. The input number must be a positive number. 
ATAN 

ATAN 0.5 Result: 26.57 
Gives the arctangent of its input. 
SIN 

SIN 30 Result: 0.5 
SIN reports the sine of its input, which is the number of
degrees in an angle. 
COS 

COS 60 Result: 0.5 
COS reports the cosine of its input, which is the number
of degrees in an angle. 
RANDOM 

RANDOM 5 This could report a 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 
RANDOM reports a randomly selected number from 1 through its input. The output can only be a positive integer. 
ABS 

ABS –10 Result: 10 
ABS reports the absolute value of its input. 
PI 

PI Result: 3.14 
Reports the value of PI 